J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
LATN 112 - 01 Elementary Latin II - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 BEC LL19

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

BEC LL19

Course Registration Number:

10184 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Elizabeth Z. Hepner

Continuation of LATN 111. More graded readings, further mastery of forms, syntax and vocabulary. Prerequisite: LATN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

J-Term 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
SPAN 111 - 01 Elementary Spanish I - T W R F - - 1300 - 1600 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

1300 - 1600

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

10019 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Michael McCarron

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 01 Elementary Spanish II - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

10012 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando A. Sanchez-Schwartz

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 02 Elementary Spanish II - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

10076 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Alexandra T. Bergmann

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 03 Elementary Spanish II - T W R F - - 1300 - 1600 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

1300 - 1600

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

10106 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jeanne M. Flaherty-Gonzalez

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L01 Intermediate Spanish I - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 OEC 307

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

OEC 307

Course Registration Number:

10007 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Nelly E. Rios-Freund

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L02 Intermediate Spanish I - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 OEC 302

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

10017 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Paola B. Ehrmantraut

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L03 Intermediate Spanish I - T W R F - - 0900 - 1200 OEC 208

Days of Week:

- T W R F - -

Time of Day:

0900 - 1200

Location:

OEC 208

Course Registration Number:

10039 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L05 Intermediate Spanish I See Details * *

Days of Week:

See Details

Time of Day:

*

Location:

*

Course Registration Number:

10107 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando I. Contreras Flamand

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
OEC 3021300-1600- T - R - - -
-- - - - - - -

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
ARAB 112 - 01 Elementary Arabic II - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20350 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Abdelkader Hamouchi

Continuation of ARAB 111. Prerequisite: ARAB 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
CHIN 112 - 01 Elementary Chinese II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 313

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 313

Course Registration Number:

20925 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Yan Wang

Continuation of CHIN 111. Introduction to fundamentals of Mandarin (Chinese) language structure and vocabulary. Practice in speaking, reading, writing and listening/ understanding. Basic rules of grammar will be introduced, along with instruction of approximately 300 words. Prerequisite: CHIN 111 or equivalent with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
FREN 111 - 01 Elementary French I M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20088 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Donald J. Dziekowicz

Practice in understanding, speaking, reading and writing simple French for beginners.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 111 - 02 Elementary French I M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

21063 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Donald J. Dziekowicz

Practice in understanding, speaking, reading and writing simple French for beginners.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 112 - 01 Elementary French II M - W - F - - 0815 - 0920 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0815 - 0920

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20089 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Stephanie K. Lohse

Continuation of FREN 111. Prerequisite: FREN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 112 - 02 Elementary French II M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20090 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Stephanie K. Lohse

Continuation of FREN 111. Prerequisite: FREN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 112 - 03 Elementary French II M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 SCB 101

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

SCB 101

Course Registration Number:

22653 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Continuation of FREN 111. Prerequisite: FREN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 211 - 01 Intermediate French I M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 SCB 107

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

SCB 107

Course Registration Number:

20091 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Ashley N. Shams

Introduction to cultural and literary materials along with rapid review of basic skills in reading, speaking, writing and understanding oral French. Prerequisite: FREN 112 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 211 - 02 Intermediate French I M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20092 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Introduction to cultural and literary materials along with rapid review of basic skills in reading, speaking, writing and understanding oral French. Prerequisite: FREN 112 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 212 - L01 Intermediate French II - T - R - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 302

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20093 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Ashley N. Shams

Continuation of FREN 211 with emphasis on oral and written use of complex sentence structure. Prerequisite: FREN 211 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 490 - 2 Topics: The Culture of Food - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 212

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 212

Course Registration Number:

22655 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Donald J. Dziekowicz

“À Table! The Food Culture of France and Beyond” A content based-cultural course centered around the cuisine of France and francophone cultures. In addition to culinary topics (menus, readings and films), the subject matter will include aspects of intermediate-to-advanced grammar, as well as expansion of appropriate vocabulary. Prequisite: FREN 300

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
FREN 490 - L01 Topics in Lit: The Other Woman - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 SCB 206

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

SCB 206

Course Registration Number:

22654 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Stephanie K. Lohse

“The Other Woman: Representations of Alterity in French and Francophone Literature" Through guided reading and analysis of French and francophone texts from the thirteenth through twentieth centuries, students will develop an understanding of how discourses of identity, otherness, and gender have been expressed and exploited in literary texts throughout time. The course will include discussion of relevant literary movements and genres, as well as each text’s relationship with its historical context. Prequisite: FREN 300

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
GERM 111 - L01 Elementary German I M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 313

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 313

Course Registration Number:

20095 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Introduction to fundamentals of language structure and vocabulary. Practice in speaking, reading, writing and understanding.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 112 - L01 Elementary German II M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 318

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

20096 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Valentin A. Solachau-Chamutouski

Continuation of GERM 111. Prerequisite: GERM 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 112 - L02 Elementary German II M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 OEC 318

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

21293 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Valentin A. Solachau-Chamutouski

Continuation of GERM 111. Prerequisite: GERM 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 211 - L01 Intermediate German I M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20097 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Habiba Hadziavdic

Review of fundamentals. Study of cultural texts with practice in speaking, reading, writing and understanding. Prerequisite: GERM 112 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 211 - L02 Intermediate German I - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 318

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

22666 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Valentin A. Solachau-Chamutouski

Review of fundamentals. Study of cultural texts with practice in speaking, reading, writing and understanding. Prerequisite: GERM 112 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 212 - L01 Intermediate German II - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 318

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

20098 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Valentin A. Solachau-Chamutouski

Continuation of GERM 211. Prerequisite: GERM 211 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GERM 490 - W01 Topics: Modern German Drama - T - R - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 318

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

22665 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Valentin A. Solachau-Chamutouski

The course focuses on works of 4 significant German-speaking playwrights, including Bert Brecht, Friedrich Dürrenmatt, Patrick Süskind, and Elfriede Jelinek. It is designed to provide both a theoretical foundation and practical applications for analyzing dramatic texts. Students will expand their German language skills and deepen their knowledge and understanding of culture of German-speaking countries and their recent history as it applies to literary texts.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
GREK 112 - 01 Elementary Classical Greek II M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 210

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 210

Course Registration Number:

20351 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Timothy R. Beck

Continuation of GREK 111. Prerequisite: GREK 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
GREK 212 - 01 Intermediate Clas. Greek II M - W - - - - 1730 - 1915 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1730 - 1915

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20895 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Timothy R. Beck

Readings in classical Greek prose, particularly Plato. Prerequisite: GREK 211 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
ITAL 111 - 01 Elementary Italian I M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 305

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 305

Course Registration Number:

20809 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Beatrice Variolo

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Italian prose, introduction to the cultures of the Italian-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
ITAL 112 - 01 Elementary Italian II M - W - F - - 0815 - 0920 OEC 305

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0815 - 0920

Location:

OEC 305

Course Registration Number:

20636 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Beatrice Variolo

Continuation of ITAL 111. Emphasis on grammatical structures , aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Italian culture. Prerequisite: ITAL 111 or its equivalent completed with a C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
ITAL 211 - L01 Intermediate Italian I M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20924 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Beatrice Variolo

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Italian. Reinforcement and expansion of grammatical structures of Elementary Italian I and II. Continued exposure to Italian culture. Prerequisite: ITAL 112 or its equivalent completed with a C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
JAPN 111 - 01 Elementary Japanese I M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

21799 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

Instructor:

Akiko M. Kilau

Mastering 46 hiragana alphabets. Introduction to basic sentence structures, particles, polite forms of verbs, and simple kanjis (Chinese characters). Students are encouraged to converse in given situations utilizing whatever has been learned in the class.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
JAPN 112 - 01 Elementary Japanese II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20810 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Akiko M. Kilau

Continuation of JAPN 111. Mastering 46 katakana alphabets. Further study of kanjis. Conjugation of adjectives, plain forms, te-forms. Noun modification. Action-in-progress as well as resultant-state forms of verbs. Main and subordinate clause construction. Daily free speaking in Japanese at simple level. Prerequisite: JAPN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
LATN 111 - L01 Elementary Latin I M - W - F - - 0815 - 0920 JRC 246

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0815 - 0920

Location:

JRC 246

Course Registration Number:

22656 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Lorina N. Quartarone

A beginning course, with emphasis on reading Latin prose in passages of increasing complexity. Introduction to essential forms, syntax and vocabulary. Practice in reading Latin aloud and composing simple sentences. Exploration of the social and cultural context of the Latin language.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
LATN 112 - L01 Elementary Latin II M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 JRC 222

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

JRC 222

Course Registration Number:

20121 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Lorina N. Quartarone

Continuation of LATN 111. More graded readings, further mastery of forms, syntax and vocabulary. Prerequisite: LATN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
LATN 112 - L02 Elementary Latin II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 JRC 222

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

JRC 222

Course Registration Number:

20122 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Lorina N. Quartarone

Continuation of LATN 111. More graded readings, further mastery of forms, syntax and vocabulary. Prerequisite: LATN 111 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
LATN 211 - L01 Intermediate Latin I M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 JRC 246

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

JRC 246

Course Registration Number:

21758 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

Instructor:

Timothy R. Beck

Readings of narrative prose. Review and further study of grammar. Prerequisite: LATN 112 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
LATN 212 - 01 Intermediate Latin II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 JRC 481

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

JRC 481

Course Registration Number:

20123 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Elizabeth Z. Hepner

This course focuses on solidifying the basic skills of language mastery through reading, writing, speaking and listening. Reading selections will be taken from various authors, both prose and poetry; stories will be drawn from the early history of Rome. Prerequisite: LATN 211 or equivalent completed with a C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
LATN 430 - D01 Caesar and Cicero M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 212

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 212

Course Registration Number:

22657 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Lorina N. Quartarone

Extensive reading of the Gallic War and of the Orations of Cicero. A study of the character and career of each author. Prerequisite: LATN 212 or 255 or equivalent

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location

Spring 2020 Courses

Course - Section Title Days Time Location
SPAN 111 - 01 Elementary Spanish I - T - R - - - 0800 - 0940 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0800 - 0940

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20247 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Sarah E. Beeman

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 111 - 02 Elementary Spanish I - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20248 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Sarah E. Beeman

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 111 - 04 Elementary Spanish I M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 209

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 209

Course Registration Number:

20249 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 111 - 05 Elementary Spanish I M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 OEC 209

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

OEC 209

Course Registration Number:

20943 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Carlos Badessich

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 111 - 06 Elementary Spanish I - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

21294 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Sarah E. Beeman

Pronunciation, essentials of grammatical structures, aural-oral practice, writing, reading of simple Spanish prose, introduction to the culture of the Spanish-speaking world.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 01 Elementary Spanish II - T - R - - - 0800 - 0940 OEC 302

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0800 - 0940

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20250 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Alexandra T. Bergmann

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 02 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 0815 - 0920 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0815 - 0920

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20251 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando A. Sanchez-Schwartz

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 03 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20252 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando A. Sanchez-Schwartz

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 04 Elementary Spanish II - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 302

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20253 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Alexandra T. Bergmann

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 05 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 319

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

20254 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando A. Sanchez-Schwartz

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 06 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 207

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 207

Course Registration Number:

20255 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jeanne M. Flaherty-Gonzalez

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 07 Elementary Spanish II - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 302

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20256 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Alexandra T. Bergmann

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 08 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20893 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jeanne M. Flaherty-Gonzalez

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 112 - 09 Elementary Spanish II M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 SCB 327

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

SCB 327

Course Registration Number:

20944 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Continuation of SPAN 111. Emphasis on grammatical structure, aural-oral practice, writing, reading. Continuation of Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L01 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 0800 - 0940 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0800 - 0940

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20257 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando I. Contreras Flamand

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L02 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 0800 - 0940 OEC 206

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0800 - 0940

Location:

OEC 206

Course Registration Number:

20259 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Nelly E. Rios-Freund

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L03 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 0815 - 0920 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0815 - 0920

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20264 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L04 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

20260 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L05 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 206

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 206

Course Registration Number:

20261 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Nelly E. Rios-Freund

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L07 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 208

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 208

Course Registration Number:

20262 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Fernando I. Contreras Flamand

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L08 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 308

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 308

Course Registration Number:

20263 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L09 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 OEC 454

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

OEC 454

Course Registration Number:

20265 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jane D. Tar

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L10 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 206

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 206

Course Registration Number:

20266 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Nelly E. Rios-Freund

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L11 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

20267 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L12 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 SCB 325

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

SCB 325

Course Registration Number:

20748 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L13 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 OEC 454

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

OEC 454

Course Registration Number:

20749 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jane D. Tar

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L14 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - - - - 1335 - 1510 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1510

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

21002 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Susana Perez Castillejo

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L15 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 319

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 319

Course Registration Number:

21060 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Paola B. Ehrmantraut

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L17 Intermediate Spanish I - T - R - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 317

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

21463 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Staff

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 211 - L18 Intermediate Spanish I M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 207

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 207

Course Registration Number:

21749 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

Instructor:

Susana Perez Castillejo

Designed to increase listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish. Intensive review of grammatical structures of Elementary Spanish I and II. Continued exposure to Hispanic culture. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 212 - 01 Intermediate Spanish II - T - R - - - 0955 - 1135 OEC 318

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

0955 - 1135

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

20268 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Derrin R. Pinto

Continuation of SPAN 211. Emphasis on Hispanic culture, conversation, writing, and expansion of vocabulary based on thematic discussions and cultural readings. Prerequisite: SPAN 211 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 212 - 02 Intermediate Spanish II - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 306

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 306

Course Registration Number:

20269 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Derrin R. Pinto

Continuation of SPAN 211. Emphasis on Hispanic culture, conversation, writing, and expansion of vocabulary based on thematic discussions and cultural readings. Prerequisite: SPAN 211 or its equivalent with a grade of C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 300 - L01 Advanced Spanish Grammar M - W - F - - 0935 - 1040 OEC 308

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

0935 - 1040

Location:

OEC 308

Course Registration Number:

20270 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Jane D. Tar

Advanced Grammar with emphasis on review of grammatical structures, language development, mechanics, and expansion of vocabulary. Writing of basic structures in expository prose. Prerequisite: Completion of SPAN 212 or its equivalent with a C- or above in all lower division language courses (SPAN 111, 112, 211, 212).

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 300 - L02 Advanced Spanish Grammar M - W - F - - 1055 - 1200 OEC 318

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1055 - 1200

Location:

OEC 318

Course Registration Number:

21750 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

Instructor:

Daniel G. Tight

Advanced Grammar with emphasis on review of grammatical structures, language development, mechanics, and expansion of vocabulary. Writing of basic structures in expository prose. Prerequisite: Completion of SPAN 212 or its equivalent with a C- or above in all lower division language courses (SPAN 111, 112, 211, 212).

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 301 - D01 Adv Written Spanish & Culture See Details * *

Days of Week:

See Details

Time of Day:

*

Location:

*

Course Registration Number:

20383 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Shirley N. Kramer

Intensive practice in written Spanish using selected materials to acquire a high level of competence in writing Spanish. This writing course aims to improve technique, expand syntactic depth, increase vocabulary and learn good writing through a process approach involving stages of idea development, thesis construction, structural development, bibliographic notation, evaluation of ideas and rewriting of the text. Lectures and class discussions are based on major topics that relate to the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Written skills will be assessed. Prerequisite: Completion of SPAN 300 or its equivalent with a C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
OEC 3180815-0920M - W - F - -
-- - - - - - -
SPAN 301 - D02 Adv Written Spanish & Culture See Details * *

Days of Week:

See Details

Time of Day:

*

Location:

*

Course Registration Number:

20498 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Shirley N. Kramer

Intensive practice in written Spanish using selected materials to acquire a high level of competence in writing Spanish. This writing course aims to improve technique, expand syntactic depth, increase vocabulary and learn good writing through a process approach involving stages of idea development, thesis construction, structural development, bibliographic notation, evaluation of ideas and rewriting of the text. Lectures and class discussions are based on major topics that relate to the cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Written skills will be assessed. Prerequisite: Completion of SPAN 300 or its equivalent with a C- or better.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
OEC 3180935-1040M - W - F - -
-- - - - - - -
SPAN 305 - L01 Span Oral Expression & Culture M - W - F - - 1215 - 1320 SCB 104

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1215 - 1320

Location:

SCB 104

Course Registration Number:

20499 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Irene Domingo

The aim of this course is to develop aural and oral skills through the analysis and interpretation of representative cultural expressions of the Spanish-speaking world. This course is intended to stimulate creative, critical thinking in Spanish through activities that require students to argue, persuade, analyze, and interpret other points of view. Oral skills will be assessed. Prerequisite: Successful completion of SPAN 300 or its equivalent with a C- or better. May be taken simultaneously with SPAN 301 or 315.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 305 - L02 Span Oral Expression & Culture M - W - F - - 1335 - 1440 SCB 104

Days of Week:

M - W - F - -

Time of Day:

1335 - 1440

Location:

SCB 104

Course Registration Number:

20808 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Irene Domingo

The aim of this course is to develop aural and oral skills through the analysis and interpretation of representative cultural expressions of the Spanish-speaking world. This course is intended to stimulate creative, critical thinking in Spanish through activities that require students to argue, persuade, analyze, and interpret other points of view. Oral skills will be assessed. Prerequisite: Successful completion of SPAN 300 or its equivalent with a C- or better. May be taken simultaneously with SPAN 301 or 315.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 315 - L01 Hispanic Linguistics - T - R - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 306

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 306

Course Registration Number:

20949 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Derrin R. Pinto

An introduction to both contemporary and historical Hispanic linguistics. Descriptive Spanish phonetics and phonology. History of the Spanish language with emphasis on historical sound-change phenomena. Systematic study of dialectal variation in both Spain and Spanish America. Offered in fall semester. Prerequisites: Successful completion of SPAN 301 and 305 or their equivalents with a C- or better in each course, (may be taken simultaneously with SPAN 305).

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 320 - 01 Business Spanish - T - R - - - 1330 - 1510 OEC 207

Days of Week:

- T - R - - -

Time of Day:

1330 - 1510

Location:

OEC 207

Course Registration Number:

22699 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Susana Perez Castillejo

Practice in the language skills and vocabulary needed to conduct business in the Hispanic world; an overview of political, economic, social and cultural factors which affect business in the Hispanic countries. Offered in fall semester. Prerequisites: Successful completion of SPAN 301 and 305 or their equivalents with a C- or better in each course (may be taken simultaneously with SPAN 305).

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 331 - W01 Spanish Culture & Civil M - W - - - - 1525 - 1700 OEC 302

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1525 - 1700

Location:

OEC 302

Course Registration Number:

22700 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Irene Domingo

A study of the evolution of the civilization of Spain from the time of early human settlements through the present. This course examines socio-economic developments, political movements and artistic creations within an historical context. Prerequisites: Successful completion of SPAN 300, 301, 305 or their equivalent with a C- or better in each course.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 485 - L01 Hispanic Visual Culture & Lit M - W - - - - 1730 - 1915 OEC 317

Days of Week:

M - W - - - -

Time of Day:

1730 - 1915

Location:

OEC 317

Course Registration Number:

22701 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Irene Domingo

This course is a survey of the literature and arts in the Spanish-speaking World from the Medieval Ages until today. Students will read different types of texts produced in Iberian and Latin American cultures. These readings, together with discussions and analysis of selected iconic buildings, paintings, sculptures, maps, photographs, comics, and movies, will provide students with a broad understanding of Hispanic cultural, literary and artistic production, as well as the transatlantic movements, encounters, and connections between cultures over the years.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
SPAN 489 - D01 Mujeres en zona de conflicto See Details * *

Days of Week:

See Details

Time of Day:

*

Location:

*

Course Registration Number:

22703 (View in ClassFinder)

Credit Hours:

4

Instructor:

Paola B. Ehrmantraut

This course will explore the multiple roles Latin-American women have played in recent history when confronted with political and social conflict. In the last 130 years, women have been soldiers, activists, community organizers, witnesses and displaced citizens forced into exile. Who are the women behind these inspiring stories of hope and courage? We will approach their experiences through the prism of several disciplines and we will build a theoretical framework that will allow us to enter into broader discussions about global feminism, activism and human rights beyond the geographical borders of Latin America.

Schedule Details

Location Time Day(s)
OEC 3191730-1915- T - R - - -
-- - - - - - -